Theodore Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat, “The State of the Jews” calling for a Jewish state to solve the growing problem of anti-Semitism. First Zionist Congress discusses plans to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. Political Zionism begins.


The Ottoman Empire, ruler of the Arab world since 1500’s, is defeated.


Hussein-McMahon Correspondence– Britain pledges support for Arab independence from Ottoman Empire. Hussein and McMahon later disagreed over whether Palestine was included in the territory to be granted independence.


Sykes-Picot Agreement – divides the Ottoman Arab lands into zones exercised by either French or British spheres of influence. Palestine comes under British influence


Britain issues Balfour Declaration which calls for “support of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people…it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.”


Council of the League of Nations divides Arab lands; British mandate for Palestine established.


Arab-Jewish riots in Hebron and elsewhere left nearly 250 Arabs and Jews dead and the Jewish community of Hebron ceased to exist.


Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. Jewish migration into Palestine increases.


The Arab Revolt – First major outbreak of Arab-Jewish hostilities. Revolt leads to the Peel Commission recommendation in 1937 of partitioning Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Arabs rejected and Jews accepted but wanted more land. White Paper limits Jewish immigration; Jews found the Mossad to arrange for illegal immigration.


Holocaust; Haj Amin El Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem sides with Nazis. Jewish migration into Palestine intensifies (680,000 Jews in Palestine in 1946). By 1946, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan had attained independence.


Hostilities in Palestine escalate, including the bombing of the British King David Hotel by the Jewish Irgun.


UN General Assembly Resolution 181 is passed, partitioning Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Greater Jerusalem was to be an international city (corpus separatum). UNGA Res. 181 rejected by Arabs. Tensions escalate. Deir Yassin Massacre (over 100 Palestinian civilians killed in Jerusalem village).


British mandate ends; Israel declares statehood. Arab armies attack Israel. War results in a divided Jerusalem and 650,000 Palestinian refugees. UNGA Res 194 establishes commission to facilitate the repatriation or compensation of refugees.


Armistice (forms basis for what became known as the “Green Line”.) Israel holds 77% of territory. Jordan annexes East Jerusalem and West Bank. Egypt controls Gaza Strip. UNRWA established. Jews from Arab countries begin migration into Israel. The Israeli Knesset passes the “Law of Return,” which entitles any Jew to full Israeli citizenship.


Suez Crisis. Nasser’s nationalization of the canal leads to military action by France, Britain and Israel. US forces allies’ withdrawal. Eisenhower threatens economic sanctions on Israel if it failed to do so.


Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is established, with the stated aim of “eliminating Zionism in Palestine.”


Six Day War: – Israel launches a preemptive strike and conquers the Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem, which it annexed. 600,000 Palestinians become refugees. UNSC Res 242 calls for Israeli withdrawal and establishes “land for peace” principle.


Israel begins establishing settlements in occupied territories. Jordan drives PLO out of Jordan: PLO forms base in southern Lebanon. Egypt’s “War of Attrition” against Israel, with Soviets aiding Nasser, leads to the Rogers Plan which sets UNSC Res. 242 as the basis for negotiations.


Yom Kippur War – Egypt and Syria attack Israel. No territorial change. UNSC Res 338 calls for negotiations between the parties. Arab oil embargo begins and lasts for 5 months.


Palestinian National Council adopts a political program. Israelis interpret this as staged liberation of Palestine; it comes to be viewed as meaning that a state in part of Palestine was acceptable to the PLO.


Menachem Begin and Likud coalition win Israeli elections. Settlements in occupied territories increase. Egypt’s President Sadat goes to Israel’s Knesset and expresses desire for Egypt and Israel to live together in “permanent peace based on justice” and calls for Palestinian right to own state.


Camp David Accords – through negotiations led by President Carter, Sinai returned to Egypt in exchange for recognition of Israel; sets framework for settling Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Arab League expels Egypt. Israel invades Lebanon, occupies its southern border.


Israeli government declares Jerusalem its eternal, undivided capital, affirming the de facto annexation of East Jerusalem, and its expanded municipal lines that included West Bank land, in 1967.


Israel annexes Golan Heights, captured from Syria in 1967.


Israel invades Lebanon a second time and lays siege to Beirut. PLO moves its headquarters from Beirut to Tunis. Reagan Peace Initiative and Fez Summit Peace Proposal
1987 Intifada, a Palestinian popular uprising against the Israeli occupation of the territories, begins in Gaza and spreads to West Bank
1988 The PLO accepts UN resolution 242 and 338, renounces violence and recognizes the right of Israel to exist within its pre-1967 borders. The United States opens dialogue with the PLO. Hamas, also known as the Islamic Resistance Movement is founded.
1991 Gulf War begins in January in response to Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Madrid Conference – Israel and Arabs begin bilateral and multilateral negotiations.
1992 Bush-Baker Administration holds up $10 Billion in U.S. loan-guarantees to Israel (fiscal years 1993 to 1997) in attempt to limit Israeli settlement building. Israel expels 415 Palestinians suspected of pro-Islamist sympathies to South Lebanon.
1993 Oslo Peace Process, the agreement between the two sides to make gradual steps towards a final settlement of the conflict, begins. Clinton hosts PLO and Israel signing of the “Declaration of Principles.” Israel recognizes the PLO and gives it limited autonomy in the West Bank and Gaza, creating the Palestinian Authority. In return, the PLO gives up its claims to Israel’s territory as defined by its pre-1967 borders. First Hamas suicide attack.
1994 Palestinian Authority is established in Gaza and Jericho. Arafat arrives in Gaza. Jordan & Israel sign peace treaty. Rabin, Peres, Arafat receive Nobel Peace Prize.
1995 “Oslo II” establishes 3 areas in West Bank: Area A— direct Palestinian control. Area B –jointly controlled: Palestinian civilian control and Israeli security control. Area C – exclusive Israeli control. Prime Minister Rabin is assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic in Tel Aviv.
1996 Palestinians elect Yasser Arafat as President. Israel launches “Operation Grapes of Wrath” in southern Lebanon; Netanyahu becomes Prime Minister of Israel. Summit in Washington between Arafat, Netanyahu, King Hussein, and Clinton.
1997 Hebron Protocol signed dividing city of Hebron. Israel starts building a settlement, Har Homa, on a hill overlooking East Jerusalem resulting in widespread protests. Peace process frozen.
1998 Wye River Memorandum, outlining further Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank, is signed but frozen. PNC renounces clauses in PLO charter offensive to Israel.
1999 PLO postpones declaration of statehood. Ehud Barak elected as Prime Minister, pledges to work for peace. Sharm el Sheik memorandum signed between Israel and PLO, final status talks begin. President Clinton attends PNC Meeting in Gaza.
2000 Camp David II – Clinton-led negotiations on final status issues between Barak and Arafat breakdown, largely over the issue of Jerusalem. Sharon makes provocative visit to Temple Mount/Haram al-Sharif. Protesting Israeli- Arabs shot by Israeli police. Second Intifada, a violent and sustained uprising, begins.
2001 Taba Talks: Arafat and Barak find common ground but no agreements. Bush inaugurated. Sharon elected Prime Minister. Violence escalates. Mitchell Report released. Ceasefire attempts are made but broken
2002 Reoccupation of Palestinian areas begins. Arafat placed under house arrest. Occupation of Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. Saudi Crown Prince peace plan, endorsed by Arab League, promises recognition of Israel for ending occupation. UNSC Res. 1397 affirms 2-state vision, welcomes Saudi initiative and Quartet diplomacy. President Bush declares vision for a “viable Palestinian state next to a secure Israel.” Israel begins construction of “security fence” around the West Bank.
2003 US-initiated war in Iraq. Occupation of Iraq begins. The Road Map is released by the US, UN, Russia and the EU. Geneva Accords and People’s Voice Initiative released.
2004 Sharon announces unilateral Gaza withdrawal plan and gains U.S. support. Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies. International Court of Justice rules that the route of Israel’s “separation barrier” violates international law.
2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian Authority on a non-violent platform. Second Intifada ends with Sharm el-Sheikh summit in February and declaration of cease-fire by militant groups in March. In State of the Union address Bush recommits to two-state solution and asks Congress for additional aid to the Palestinians. Gaza withdrawal is completed in September.
2006 Prime Minister Sharon suffers a serious stroke; Deputy PM Ehud Olmert assumes power. Hamas, a State Department designated foreign terrorist organization, wins majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council elections. Escalation of Israeli-Palestinian violence in Gaza and abduction of Israeli Corporal Gilad Shalit. Hezbollah-Israel conflict erupts in the summer following kidnapping of Israeli soldiers; month-long war ends with a cease-fire on August 14.
2007 Mecca Agreement, brokered by Saudi Arabia, reached between Hamas and Fatah. Palestinian Unity Government formed in March. Arab League relaunches its Peace Proposal. Hamas takeover of Gaza in June, leads to breakup of unity government and appointment of Salam Fayyad as new PM of PA. Former British PM Tony Blair is appointed the Quartet’s Mid-east peace envoy and tasked with addressing economic and development issues in the territories. President Bush announces Mid-east peace conference. The conference takes place in Annapolis without Hamas and with all Arab League nations participating including Syria and Saudi Arabia. Syria participates on the condition that a Syria-Israeli track will be pursued in the upcoming peace talks. Annapolis concludes with PM Olmert and President Abbas agreeing to a “joint understanding” to “make every effort to conclude an agreement before the end of 2008.” An international donors conference in Paris earns $7.4 billion for the PA.
2008 In January, President Bush makes his first visit to the Holy Land as president. Also in January, Israel closes all border crossings with Gaza to halt Palestinian rocket attacks. Palestinian militants bomb the Rafah border and tens of thousands of Gazans cross the border into Egypt. In May, Israelis celebrate Israel’s 60th anniversary and Palestinians reflect on the 60th anniversary of the “Nakba.” Also in May, Israel publicizes that they are in negotiations with Syria via Turkish intermediaries. In June, a Gaza cease-fire is brokered between Hamas and Israel by Egyptian intermediaries.
2009 In January, 2009 Israel ended a 22 day siege of Gaza leaving some 1330 Palestinians dead. Likud leader Benjamin Netanhahu becomes Israel’s prime minister. In Cairo, President Barack Obama addresses the world’s Muslims, promising a “new beginning.”
2010  Gaza Flotilla Raid Israel places moratorium on expansion settlement, only to later rescind it.
 2011  “Palestine Spring: Palestinian Authority petitions  U.N. for recognition of statehood.
 2012  Operation Pillar of Defense: Israel attacks military sites in Gaza.      On Hunderd Thirty-Three Palestinians killed.  U.N. Resolution 67/19: Palestine updated from    “observer” status to a non-member state
 2013  Fresh round of “peace talks” derailed as Israel   refuses  to curtail construction of new settlements.
 2014  Palestinian Authority and Hamas arrive at “acccord” resulting in Israel’s immediate withdrawal from the peace process. Israeli offensive into Gaza results in 575 mostly civilian deaths, 27 Israeli deaths, two civilians. Egypt brokers tenuous cease-fire.
 2015  In response to demonstrations near the Al Aqsa mosque, Israelis bar entrance to the building result- in increased violence in East Jerusalem and in the West Bank. The frequency of attacks on both sides gives rise to the terms “third intifada.” Some Palestinians prefer the term “silent intifada.” Others refer to the “knife intifada” to describe the nature of attacks on the part of Arab youths. Israeli newspaper Haaretz reports that ISIS is now infiltrating Israel and is inciting “lone-wolf” terrorist attacks.
2016  International concern over escalated construction of settlements results in growing number of boycotts, divestments, and sanctions against corporations that support the Israeli military industrial establishment and its continuous seizures of Palestinian land.  In December, Israel suspends working ties with 12 countries that voted for a U.N. Security Council Resolution condemning settlement construction. The U.S., for the first time, abstains from the vote rather than utilizing its veto.
2017  Newly elected U.S. President, Donald Trump, states that he is “neutral” but willing to help to revive peace talks with Israel and Palestinian leaders. He states that he has been convinced by reliable officials that a two-state solution is no longer doable.   December 6, President Trump formally recognizes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital which creates wide-spread concern from peace workers in the Middle East, especially the Christian communities in  Jerusalem and the West Bank.  Settlements continue to expand.
2018 Israel Nation-State law passed through the Knesset.   U.S. Cuts funding to Palestinian Refugees. President Trump moves the U.S. Embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Palestinian Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah visits Gaza and survives a roadside bomb attack. The Group of 77 elects the State of Palestine Chair for the year 2019.
2019 The Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH), an unarmed civilian human rights watch mandate, is not renewed by Israel and the World Council of Churches pulls out their observers because of harassment by settlers and Israeli soldiers. The U.S. drops “occupied” from its 2018 annual human rights report and instead refers to the Golan Heights as “Israeli-controlled territory”. U.S. Representatives Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar are banned from entering Israel. In Nov. Israel expels the Director of Human Rights Watch
2020 The United Arab Emirates and Bahrain agree to normalize relations with Israel as part of the Abraham Accords. Israel advances plans for 12,159 more housing units in the West Bank settlements.
2021 U.S. House of Representatives votes to provide $1 billion for Israel’s Iron Dome defense system. In May, Israel raids Aqsa Mosque and violence erupts with subsequent airstrikes on Gaza killing 248 Palestinians (66 of them children) and wounding over 1,400. The U.N. reports 52,000 Palestinians have been displaced in Gaza. Israel’s Prime Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, is replaced by Naftali Bennett
        2022 In March, Israel launched a military campaign called “Break the Wave” that has included near-daily raids, mass arrests and killings in the West Bank. Attacks by Israeli settlers against Palestinians also increased for the sixth consecutive year. The UN has declared the year 2022 the deadliest for Palestinians in the occupied West Bank since 2006. At least 250 illegal settlements scattered across the West Bank and East Jerusalem are now occupied by 600,000 – 750,000 Israeli settlers.   Veteran Al Jazeera Journalist Shireen Abu Akela was killed on May 11 by Israeli forces. The fifth Israeli parliamentary elections were held in less than four years, resulting in the most far-right government in its 74 year history.”
2023 Violence increased beginning with an unprovoked raid on the Jenin Refugee Camp in January.    Settler attacks against Palestinians increased in number and intensity.  Reprisal attacks aimed at Israel. October 7 Hamas invades Israel, leaving 1200 dead and taking 240 hostages.  Israel declares war on Hamas, orders siege of Gaza.  22000 people die in Gaza, including 10,000 children.   Israel attacks hospitals. War sparks a humanitarian crisis in Gaza.  Israel begins to allow aid trucks into Gaza.  In November 100 Israeli hostages are released in exchange for prisoners in Israel.
2024 The Humanitarian crisis worsens in Gaza.   Battles continue near hospitals, with few still functioning. There is an extreme shortage of medical supplies. In Israel,  families of hostages storm parliament. Many nations in the world community press for a Ceasefire and release of hostages.

June 2008 Adaptation by Churches for Middle East Peace from timeline prepared by Rev. Betty J. Bailey – Additional Timeline Rev. John Darlington,  Rev. Emma Melin  &  Rev Alex Awad

*Source: various websites with current timelines, and “Lest  We Forget,” The Special Relationship 1949-2011, a pamphlet  published by Americans for Middle East Understanding, June, 2011.